GNU/Linux / Desktop

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GNU/Linux / Desktop  edit   (Category  edit)

Aliases: GNU/Linux / Desktop environment, GNU/Linux / X Windowing System, GNU/Linux / Graphical environment,

This information will be about Ubuntu and GNOME unless specified otherwise.


Keyboard shortcuts

Function Default My preference Easiest way to change
Opens a Run Application window... Alt+F2 F1 GNOME Keyboard Shortcuts app
Open a terminal window (disabled) SuperR GNOME Keyboard Shortcuts app
Switch to workspace on the left Ctrl+Alt+Left GNOME Keyboard Shortcuts app
Toggle full-screen mode (disabled) Alt+Enter GNOME Keyboard Shortcuts app

Firefox / Keyboard shortcuts

Firefox / Keyboard shortcuts edit

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How to remap keys

Master Your Linux Keyboard (And Fix Caps Lock Forever): XBindKeys For Launching Applications ( Retrieved on 2007-05-11 11:18.

KDE and GNOME, window managers like IceWM and Fluxbox, and many applications come with their own set of prefab keybindings. You should investigate these before going on a customization spree, or you run the risk of creating conflicts. We're going to learn how to use XBindKeys. XBindKeys is not dependent on any particular desktop or window manager, and should run on pretty much any Linux or Unix system." Retrieved on 2007-05-11 11:18.

I live and die by xbindkeys and xautomation. They allow me to easily map and remap the 9 extra buttons on my mouse, something that I couldn't figure out how to do in Windows. I'm almost always using my laptop while in bed, so I like to be able to do everything with one hand. I even have profiles saved and automatically change depending on the situation, so click-wheel left and right scroll through tabs in Firefox and Konqueror, change the page in KPDF and skip -/+ 10 seconds in VLC. Very useful stuff. Retrieved on 2007-05-11 11:18.

Want to get rid of the evil caps lock key without mutilating your keyboard? Want to give those silly Windows keys useful jobs, or put all those extra multi-media keys to work? Want to become a powerhouse keyboarding commando? Then come along and join the fun, because Linux has all kinds of good tools for taming wayward keyboards and increasing your efficiency. In this two-part series we're going to use xmodmap, XBindKeys, and KeyTouch to create custom keybindings for launching applications and running commands. The placement of the caps lock key is a demonstration of malicious cunning. It's above the shift key and it's usually oversized, so it's way too easy to hit it when you don't want to, which for me is all the time. On a case-sensitive operating system it's not all that useful anyway. Unhappy users often resort to remedies like prying it off entirely or covering it with duct tape. You can do this if you're careful, but elite geeks resort to more sophisticated measures that do not mangle their nice keyboards. It's not the fault of the keyboards that manufacturers have giant Windows-sized blind spots, and as always, Linux makes lemonade out of lemons and provides useful alternatives.

The "Windows" key

... is the "super" key in Linux. Or, I suppose, the "Linux" key. Retrieved on 2007-05-11 11:18.

To get the windows key to be interpreted as one key, do this: Make a task that starts with the session (I don't know how you do this in GNOME) by creating a new link to application in your ~/.kde/Autostart directory. Make it so that it runs the following command: xmodmap ~/.xmodmap Now we need to create a plain text file in your home folder called .xmodmap and make sure it says the following in it:

keycode 115 = F13 keycode 116 = F14

The second line is only needed if your keyboard has two windows keys. Essentially, this maps these keys to the two imaginary keys F13 and F14, so you don't need to worry about the Win + something problem anymore. 115 and 116 are the keycodes that I've seen most, if not all, keyboards give for the winkeys. Check by running xev if it is the same for you. I got this from somewhere else long ago, so don't give the credit to me for it.

I don't think that's actually necessary (any more?). Using Ubuntu's "Keyboard Shortcuts" app, I was able to map "Super R" (the right Linux key) to a desired command, without doing all that stuff e mentioned.


Selecting text copies it to the middle-click buffer

[Differences from Windows (category)]

I like!

At first I didn't think I liked this, having two different clipboard buffers... But I think the benefits outweigh the drawbacks here: It is so convenient to be able to select text and have it automatically copied to the clipboard and then be able to paste to another application with only a single click, without ever touching the keyboard!.

I used to have it set up to be almost as convenient on Windows: I just had to select the text, press the Windows key (mapped to copy), switch to the other app, and press CapsLock (paste).

On the other hand, ... I'm more of a keyboard-lover than a mouse-lover, and I don't know of any way to access the middle-click buffer from the keyboard. Does anyone else know a way??

Annoyances / Open problems

Double-click word selection is unintelligent and unintuitive

Double-clicking whitespace selects the word to the right of the whitespace

On Windows, it only selected the whitespace, which is what I'm used to and which is the behavior I like better now that I've experienced both.

Can we fix this??

Also, double-clicking a word that is beside some punctuation marks (-, =, ", . -- anything I've tried) also selects the punctuation marks -- which is not what I want.

Example: Double-clicking on there in "Hi there." causes there." to be selected.

Even if you have an XML tag or something following or preceding a word--that will get picked up and selected too.

Can we fix this??

[Firefox (category)]: Drag and drop of the address bar only gives URL

[Differences from Windows (category)]

When you drag the address bar (or the icon beside it) to another app (a textarea in another browser window), I'm used to having it insert the URL as well as the title. In X / Gnome, it looks like it only inserts the URL. (Oh well. At least it's usually pretty easy to copy and paste the title of the page using the middle button...)

Somewhat advanced stuff

Startup scripts


man gksu:

       gksu - GTK+ frontend for su and sudo


       gksu [-u <user>] [options] <command>

       gksudo [-u <user>] [options] <command>

       gksu is a frontend to su and gksudo is a frontend to sudo.  Their primary purpose is to run graphical commands that need root without the need to run an X terminal
       emulator and using su directly.

       Notice that all the magic is done by the underlying library, libgksu. Also notice that the library will decide if it should use su or sudo  as  backend  using  the
       /apps/gksu/sudo-mode  gconf  key,  if  you  call the gksu command. You can force the backend by using the gksudo command, or by using the --sudo-mode and --su-mode

       If no command is given, the gksu program will display a small window that allows you to type in a command to be run, and to select what user the program should  be
       run as. The other options are disregarded, right now, in this mode. Retrieved on 2007-05-11 11:18.

For launching graphical applications with rootly powers, or as any other user, you need gksu or kdesu. Using one of these gives you a graphical login window, like Figure 2. gksu is a graphical front-end to both su and sudo. Just to add to the fun and confusion, so is gksudo. Making it even more fun is Ubuntu makes gksu behave like gksudo. So let's talk about this first. Retrieved on 2007-05-11 11:18.

Because Ubuntu makes gksu and gksudo both behave like sudo, how do you configure xbindkeys to run a command as "real" root? Use the -w switch, like this:

$ gksu -w kate

You can cancel the sudo timeout with this command:

$ sudo -k

This is helpful when you're testing your commands and they get stuck in sudo mode.

[Nautilus (category)]

Customizing the context menu





umask / default file permissions

Multiple desktops Retrieved on 2007-05-11 11:18.

I think you should use desktops more. You can group windows by activities - one desktop for messaging stuff, one for music, one for web browsing, use the pager or the window list (which is on the top right in a gnome setup) to move between desktops. I typically use six desktops, and there is no need for minimizing windows. The taskbar isn't needed anymore.

I've never understood the use of taskbars in a system with virtual desktops. It makes sense in the Other OS, but I've never seen the point in GNOME. My browser is always in desktop 3; my terminal is always in #1, my music is always in #4, etc. Having an omnipresent widget just to tell me which apps are open seems like a bad use of screen real estate; I know exactly where my apps are without even thinking about it. Learning to be consistent in which programs you open on which desktops really pays off. Then again, maybe it just works well for me since I am a web developer, and I have a predictable set of programs open at all time with little variance.


Trying to get the taskbar (window list) to take 2 rows instead of one

Sound and video


I used EasyUbuntu to get the codecs, but there are probably other ways.



Description: Tilda is a Linux terminal taking after the likeness of many classic terminals from first person shooter games, Quake, Doom and Half-Life to name a few, where the terminal has no border and is hidden from the desktop till a key or keys is hit.

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